These are the models with which we will work during the Summer School:

  • COSMO-Art
    Over several years we have developed the comprehensive model system COSMO- ART and continuously improved it. The operational weather forecast model COSMO (previously named LM) of the German Weather Service (DWD) was extended to treat secondary aerosols, directly emitted components like soot, mineral dust, sea salt and biological material as pollen. Modules for the emissions of mineral dust, sea salt and pollen grains have been developed. Processes as emissions, coagulation, condensation dry deposition, and sedimentation are taken into account. A module to treat the washout in a consistent way has been developed. The online coupling enables the calculation of the interactions of gases and aerosols with the state of the atmosphere. New methods to calculate efficiently the photolysis frequencies and the radiative fluxes based on the actual aerosol load were developed based on the GRAALS radiation scheme (Geleyn and Ritter, 1992) that is already implemented in COSMO. COSMO-ART covers the continental to the regional scale.

  • EnviroHIRLAM
    The HIRLAM model is a hydrostatic grid-point model, of which the dynamical core is based on a semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian discretisation of the multi-level primitive equations, using a hybrid coordinate in the vertical. Optionally, an Eulerian dynamics scheme can be used as well. The prognostic variables horizontal wind components u,v, temperature T, specific humidity q and linearised geopotential height G are defined at full model levels. Pressure p, geopotential height Φ and vertical wind velocity are calculated at “half” levels. For the horizontal discretization, an Arakawa C-grid is used. The equations are written for a general map projection, but in practice normally a rotated lat-lon grid projection is adopted. A fourth-order implicit horizontal diffusion is applied. More details on the dynamical and numerical aspects of HIRLAM can be found in the HIRLAM Scientific Documentation, December 2002 (Unden et al, 2002).

    The HARMONIE (HIRLAM-ALADIN Research for Meso-scale Operational NWP In Europe) cooperation aims at building convection-permitting operational weather prediction system. The HARMONIE NWP system combines elements from the global IFS/Arpege model (Déqué et al., 1994) with the ALADIN nonhydrostatic dynamics (Bénard et al., 2010). At the default horizontal resolutions <= 2.5 km, the forecast model and analysis system are basically those of the AROME model from Météo-France (Seity et al, 2011, Brousseau et al, 2011). Physical parametrizations from ALARO, HIRLAM (Undén et al., 2002) and ECMWF are applicable in this framework. In the future, it is consider possible to enhance the HARMONIE framework to couple NWP and ACT models in order to provide in-line weather information needed for the air quality prediction. The exercises of the present course will use MUSC, a single-column version of HARMONIE-AROME, based on Malardel et al. (2006) to study radiation-aerosol interactions within the classical NWP framework.

    The METRAS model has originally been developed at Meteorological Institute, University of Hamburg (Schlünzen, 1988, 1990). In the meantime it is broadly used in Germany and overseas. METRAS can be used for areas between 10x10 km2 (e.g. convection) and 2500x2500 km2 (e.g. coastal convergences, pollution transport in a regional scale, cyclone development). A 3D non-uniform grid allows higher resolution in interesting areas and close to the surface with a reduced resolution in other regions. Wind, temperature, humidity, cloud- and rainwater as well as tracer concentrations are calculated from prognostic equations, pressure from the (diagnostic) anelastic equation. The influence of several land use characteristics (e.g. water, urban areas, vegetation, ice) as well as of orography (mountains, cliffs, houses) is considered in the model using flux averaging with blending height concept. The dry deposition of pollutions is calculated from a resistance model, it depends on pollution and land use characteristics. Chemical transformations are included in the off-line coupled chemistry transport model MECTM . The lateral model boundaries are open or METRAS is nested in results of a coarser model (e.g. weather forecast, analysis or regional climate model). At the model top absorbing layers are used, or again the nesting technique is applied. By use of the model system M-SYS which employs METRAS and MECTM in several resolutions concentrations of several pollutants (e.g. NOx, O3, SO2 , NH3, Pb, nitrate, sulphate) in the air and the deposition at the ground can be calculated dependent on the sources (industry, power stations, household, car and ship traffic). Emission scenario studies can be performed.

  • WRF-Chem
    WRF-Chem is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry. The model simulates the emission, transport, mixing, and chemical transformation of trace gases and aerosols simultaneously with the meteorology. The model is used for investigation of regional-scale air quality, field program analysis, and cloud-scale interactions between clouds and chemistry. The development of WRF-Chem is a collaborative effort among the community. NOAA/ESRL scientists are the leaders and caretakers of the code. The Official WRF-Chem web page is located at the NOAA web site. Our model development is closely linked with both NOAA/ESRL and DOE/PNNL efforts. Description of PNNL WRF-Chem model development is located at the PNNL web site as well as the PNNL Aerosol Modeling Testbed.